By Paula Fitzsimmons
Think you know all there is to know about puppy and kitten nutrition? Are you aware that puppies and kittens are more sensitive to nutritional imbalances than adults, for example? Or that excess calcium intake can cause a puppy to develop orthopedic disease?
Go past Puppy and Kitten Nutrition 101 to learn lesser-known facts about their dietary needs. Then use this knowledge to provide your newest family member with the proper start in life she needs to thrive for years to come.
1. A Balanced Diet Is Even More Important for Growing Animals Than for Adults
All animals, regardless of age, need a balanced diet to thrive, but puppies and kittens are especially sensitive to nutritional imbalances, says Dr. Jonathan Stockman, a board-certified veterinary nutritionist at the James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. âThe requirements and the sensitivities to excess in nutrients are generally highest.â
One example is calcium, an essential dietary mineral that plays a critical role in bone development. In excess, calcium can cause a puppy to develop severe bone changes and orthopedic disease, he says. âLarge and giant breed puppies are particularly sensitive to this, whereas adult dogs are able to regulate calcium absorption when the diet is high in calcium.â
2. Puppies Should Not Be Fed Adult Formula Food
Because they are sensitive to nutritional imbalances and their energy needs are greater, puppies should only be fed a growth formula diet, vets say.
Growth places the highest energy and nutrient demands?than any other life stage?on a dog or cat, apart from lactation, says Dr. Jessica Harris, a board-certified veterinary nutritionist at Carolina Ranch Animal Hospital in Garner, North Carolina.?âThe energy needs of a puppy are two-fold: 1) support the tissues already developed and 2) provide?the energy required to form new tissues.â
Puppies use about 50 percent of their consumed energy for maintenance and 50 percent for new tissue development?in the early growth phase, Harris says. âAs the puppy gets older, the energy needed to support?growth diminishes and proportionately shifts to support maintenance.?Energy is provided by protein, fat, and carbohydrates. Thus, growth diets often?provide a greater percentage of protein and fat?to support growth?than do adult maintenance diets.â Growth diets also provide optimal amounts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, and essential fatty acids, âwhich have an important role in bone formation and maturation, cartilage maturation, hair color, red blood cell development, and trainability.â?
3. Unchecked Growth Can Be Harmful to a Dogâs Bones
Feeding a puppy to maintain her ideal body condition versus allowing maximum growth promotes the optimal rate of bone development, says Harris, who is also a clinical nutrition instructor at the Topeka, Kansas-based Mark Morris Institute.
âThe adult weight and size of the animal is not impacted by whether the growth rate is rapid or slow, however, the risk of skeletal deformities increases with the rapidity of growth.â?
Determining a puppyâs body condition score (BCS) is a reliable way to determine normal growth rate. Body scoring helps you gauge if your dog is maintaining a healthy muscle mass and body fat index. Itâs something you can practice at home, using your hands and visual observation.
4. Young Animals Need Multiple Feeding Times to Thrive
Animals rely on reserves for energy in between meals, says Harris. âThese energy reservoirs are stored glycogen in the liver or fat depots throughout the body.?Ketones produced by the breakdown of lipid or amino acids can also provide energy.? As young animals often have limited reserves and are at risk for the development of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), multiple meals offered throughout the day best averts the onset of lethargy, trembling, weakness, lack of coordination, and seizures.â
Puppies should eat at least three meals per day, and kittens younger than 6 months should be fed more often, âFor example, four to six times a day,â says Dr. Donna Raditic, a board-certified veterinary nutritionist with Nutrition and Integrative Medicine Consultants based in Athens, Georgia.
This should be accompanied by close monitoringâwith your veterinarianâof body weight, muscle condition score (MCS), and BCS, Raditic adds. She encourages pet parents to use a food gram scale to weigh food and monitor daily caloric intake.
âJust like human weight loss programs will use food gram scales to educate us about portion size and caloric intake, weighing your puppy/kittenâs diet right from the start will help you to be sure you are feeding the correct amount,â she says. âAdjusting intake in grams is much more accurate than going from one-eighth cup to one-fourth cup.â
5. Nutritional Needs Differ by Breed Size
There are a few key differences in the nutrient needs of large breed puppies as compared to small- to medium sized breeds, says Harris.?Most of these focus on reducing the risk of?developing?orthopedic disease.? ?
âAlthough the?development of musculoskeletal disorders is multi-factorial and a complicated disease process, it has been correlated nutritionally with calcium, phosphorus, the calcium-phosphorus ratio, vitamin D, and energy intake,â she explains. âLarge breed growth diets contain a little less than 1 percent calcium and more than adequately meet the growing large breed puppiesâ calcium requirement. Small- to?medium-sized breeds are less sensitive to slightly overfeeding or underfeeding calcium, and as a result, the level of calcium in foods for these puppies have a broader margin of safety.â
6. A Gruel Formula Can Help Ease the Weaning Process
Providing your companion with porridge-like formula during weaningâwhich starts when an animal is about 3 to 4 weeks old and is marked by the eruption of baby teeth and an interest in solid foodâcan help ease the process, Harris says.
âIt has been largely successful to introduce a gruel made by blending a canned growth food with a canine/feline liquid milk replacer in a 1:1 ratio,â she says. âAlternatively, one part dry commercial food can be ground in a food processor and mixed with three parts of canine/feline liquid milk replacer.â
She says the young animal should always have access to the formula, and that it should be replaced three to four times a day. It will spoil and promote bacterial growth if left out at room temperature for prolonged periods.?
Itâs during playtime that a young animal typically encounters the gruel, then will progressively consume small amounts.?âAs the young animal's interest increases, the liquid portion of the mixture can be gradually reduced until they are consuming only the canned or dry commercial growth diet, usually between 6 and 9 weeks of age,â Harris says. âThis transition is a delicate balance between the mother, the young, and the owners and requires close monitoring and patience.â
Not all brands of milk replacer are equal, however. âCare should be taken when selecting the milk replacer, as not all brands meet the minimum nutrient requirements for growth per American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) for all labeled species.â?
7. Feeding Methods are Not One-Size-Fits-All
Pet parents have three options for feeding growing puppies and kittens: Free choice, which makes the food available 24/7 (like an all-day buffet); time-limited, where food is out for a set period of time; and amount-limited, where portions are pre-determined.
âEach have their own benefits and drawbacks and what is right for one animal may not be the best option for another,â Harris says. âTherefore, it is strongly recommended that the [owner] have a discussion with their veterinarian about the best feeding option for their growing pet.â
Size and breed are factors that can impact that decision. For example, âfree-feeding puppies can be problematic for the large, giant breeds,â says Raditic, who also co-founded the Companion Animal Nutrition & Wellness Institute.
âIf rapid growth is induced, this may drive the genetics of these breeds at risk for developmental orthopedic disease (for example, hip or elbow dysplasia),âshe says. âFor small and medium breeds, it can be problematic increasing body fatâfor these breeds are at risk for obesity and to be overweight.â
8. Working with Your Companionâs Natural Behavior Can Provide Additional Health Benefits
Working with an animalâs instincts can promote health and well-being. âSimulating normal feeding behavior will increase activity, reduce boredom, help with weight management and prevent obesity, and strengthen the bond between cat and owner,â says Dr. Amy Learn, a veterinarian at Cary Street Veterinary Hospital in Richmond, Virginia.
Cats are innate hunters, so work to add enrichment to their feeding regimen. âFor example, using feeding toys or embracing a catâs three-dimensional world,â Raditic says.
Dogs evolved as hunters, as well as scavengers.?âThese activities were a substantial part of their daily time budget and are not currently utilized when we hand them a bowl of food,â Raditic says.?You can still honor a dogâs natural behavior, however, by allowing her to work for her food âwith puzzle toys or programs like âlearn to earn,â?which have been shown to provide mental stimulation,â explains Learn.
The more we understand about a young puppy or kittenâs dietary needs, the better care weâre able to provide. Early nutrition deeply impacts puppies and kittens and sets the stage for longevity and quality of life, Raditic says. âEvery pet parent needs to understand and own this preventative care for their furry companion.â